“There are those who reason well, but they are greatly outnumbered by those who reason badly.”
“Mathematics is the alphabet with which God has written the Universe.”
“Mathematics is the language with which God has written the universe.” All attributed to Galileo Galilei
Popular fiction to the contrary, both the ancient Greeks and Romans were excellent engineers and experimental researchers. What they lacked was a system to tie everything together. Until Isaac Newton, every branch of learning had not only their own method of learning, but their own set of standards.
This changed with Isaac Newton. He took the learning, the methods, the mathematics of those who went before him and developed what we know today as the scientific method.
“Newton singlehandedly contributed more to the development of science than any other individual in history. He surpassed all the gains brought about by the great scientific minds of antiquity, producing a scheme of the universe which was more consistent, elegant, and intuitive than any proposed before. Newton stated explicit principles of scientific methods which applied universally to all branches of science. This was in sharp contradistinction to the earlier methodologies of Aristotle and Aquinas, which had outlined separate methods for different disciplines. “© 1996-2007 Eric W. Weisstein
Newton built on the foundations laid by Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, Hus, and Savonarola, as well as the ancients. But Newton had a far more important foundation. “This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.”
“This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called Lord God (Greek), or Universal Ruler; for God is a relative word, and has a respect to servants; and Deity is the dominion of God not over his own body, as those imagine who fancy God to be the soul of the world, but over servants. The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, absolutely perfect; but a being, however perfect, without dominion, cannot be said to be Lord God; for we say, my God, your God, the God of Israel, the God of Gods, and Lord of Lords; but we do not say, my Eternal, your Eternal, the Eternal of Israel, the Eternal of Gods; we do not say, my Infinite, or my Perfect: these are titles which have no respect to servants. The word God usually signifies Lord; but every lord is not a God. It is the dominion of a spiritual being which constitutes a God: a true, supreme, or imaginary dominion makes a true, supreme, or imaginary God. And from his true dominion it follows that the true God is a living, intelligent, and powerful Being; and, from his other perfections, that he is supreme, or most perfect. He is eternal and infinite, omnipotent and omniscient; that is, his duration reaches from eternity to eternity; his presence from infinity to infinity; he governs all things, and knows all things that are or can be done. He is not eternity and infinity, but eternal and infinite; he is not duration or space, but he endures and is present. He endures forever, and is everywhere present; and, by existing always and everywhere, he constitutes duration and space. Since every particle of space is always, and every indivisible moment of duration is everywhere, certainly the Maker and Lord of all things cannot be never and nowhere.”
(Scholium [postscript] at the end of Sir Isaac Newton’s Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Translated by Andrew Motte, Revised by Florian Cajore)
These statements clearly show that Isaac Newton certainly believed that the evidence demonstrated more than just Intelligent Design, but the need of a personal God to not only create but also superintend, watch over, direct His creation.
But Newton does not stop with a loving, caring God watching over His creation. He states that the material universe could not exist apart from Him. In the same work Newton continued with the following.
“We know him only by his most wise and excellent contrivances of things, and final causes; we admire him for his perfections; but we reverence and adore him on account of his dominion: for we adore him as his servants; and a god without dominion, providence, and final causes, is nothing else but Fate and Nature. Blind metaphysical necessity, which is certainly the same always and everywhere, could produce no variety of things. All that diversity of natural things which we find suited to different times and places could arise from nothing but the ideas and will of a Being necessarily existing. But, by way of allegory, God is said to see, to speak, to laugh, to love, to hate, to desire, to give, to receive, to rejoice, to be angry, to fight, to frame, to work, to build; for all our notions of God are taken from the ways of mankind by a certain similitude, which, though not perfect, has some likeness, however.”
The order of a scientific method of observation, categorization and understanding the material universe requires, to use Newton’s words, “the God of Israel, the God of Gods, and Lord of Lords.” Newton very clearly understood what he said and he understood that the opposite was not possible. “Blind metaphysical necessity, which is certainly the same always and everywhere, could produce no variety of things.” More than 150 years before The Origin of Species, Newton showed that the very foundations of evolution were not scientific, because science is based on God. “All that diversity of natural things which we find suited to different times and places could arise from nothing but the ideas and will of a Being necessarily existing.”